1 AnswerPituitary hormone deficiency is usually caused by a benign pituitary tumor pressing on and destroying the cells of the pituitary gland. All of the hormones except prolactin can be replaced by medications—pills, injections, nasal spray, skin patches and/or skin gel, depending on the type of hormone.
2 AnswersThe anterior lobe of the pituitary gland makes the following hormones:
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which causes the thyroid gland to produce two hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which help control the body's metabolism.
- Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which control the production of testosterone, estrogen, sperm, and egg maturation and release.
- Growth hormone (GH), which is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism.
- Prolactin, which stimulates the production of breast milk and is necessary for normal milk production during breastfeeding.
- The posterior pituitary lobe releases two hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus:
- Oxytocin, which is responsible for stimulation of milk ejection (milk letdown) and for stimulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction at birth.
- Vasopressin (ADH), which is the primary regulator of body water.
1 AnswerThe pituitary gland itself consists of a larger anterior lobe that makes the following hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH) and Prolactin. The posterior lobe releases two hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH) that are produced in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus relays signals from many parts of the brain to the pituitary, which in turn sends its own messages to various parts of the body.
The pituitary gland is often considered the "master gland." It regulates most of the body's hormonal balance. Your pituitary gland can stop functioning because there is a tumor, but also because of some of the following situations:
- If you are diabetic - if you are diabetic and you have loss of pituitary function, your doctor may investigate another cause other than a tumor. The cause may be infection, craniopharyngioma, which is a benign tumor that develops near the pituitary gland, glioma or germ cell tumors. Glioma is another type of tumor.
- Hemorrhage - bleeding or hemorrhage into a pituitary benign tumor, called an adenoma, can cause the pituitary gland to become completely non-functional.
- If you have radiation therapy - if you are undergoing radiation therapy that involves the pituitary gland and in particular, a part of the gland called the pituitary stalk, this can also result in your pituitary gland losing its ability to function.
Pituitary tumors are growths which impair the normal function of your pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is often considered the "master gland." It regulates most of the body's hormonal balance. One of the hormones created by the pituitary gland is growth hormone.
If your pituitary gland produces too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), this is called Cushing's disease. The symptoms of Cushing's disease include:
- Fat accumulations in the face, above the clavicles, and the back of the neck
- Skin thinning
- Purple to red streaks in the skin
- Muscle wasting leading resulting in difficulty in getting up from a chair
- Osteopenia or osteoporosis - this is when bone density is lower than normal. It puts you at an increased risk for fractures.
- Impaired defense mechanisms against infections
- Hypertension leading to congestive heart failure
- Hirsutism - this means an unusual amount of hair in females
- Emotional mood swings - including anxiety, irritability, euphoria, or depression
Pituitary tumors are growths in the pituitary gland. When a pituitary gland does not function correctly, it is usually because of a benign, or non-cancerous, tumor of the gland. This is also called an adenoma.
The pituitary gland is a pea-size gland located behind your eyes and often considered the "master endocrine gland." It regulates most of your body's hormones. In particular, it controls the function of the adrenal glands, the thyroid, and the ovaries or testes.
While some pituitary failure is caused by tumors, you may have pituitary failure caused by:
- Hemorrhage, or bleeding, into a pituitary adenoma - this is called apoplexy.
- Infarction or death of the tissue of the gland, after complicated childbirth - this is called Sheehan's syndrome.
- Inflammation - This is called "lymphocytic hypophysitis" and occurs most frequently in women during or after a pregnancy
- Radiation therapy involving the pituitary gland and/or the hypothalamus - this can result in pituitary failure in up to fifty percent of patients for as long as three to five years from radiation therapy.
- Surgery - surgery itself can cause damage to the gland.
1 AnswerHonor Society of Nursing (STTI) answered
The pituitary gland is an important part of the endocrine system, and problems with the pituitary gland can lead to endocrine diseases. Tumors or other damage to the pituitary gland can lead to endocrine system diseases like Addison's disease. If your pituitary gland cannot make enough pituitary hormones, it can cause an endocrine condition known as hypopituitarism.
4 AnswersMichael Roizen, MD, Internal Medicine, answeredThe pituitary gland is a small, oval gland (about the size of a pea) that's located at the base of your skull. It has two sides, the posterior and the anterior. The anterior comes up from the back of the mouth and grows up into the brain, while the posterior protrudes down from the hypothalamus in the brain to sit on a bone called the "Turkish Saddle." It's a bone that sits at the base of the skull and holds the pituitary—almost like a ball resting in a socket. Although the posterior secretes a couple hormones, the anterior gets all the glory for secreting hormones you probably recognize, if not by name, by their function—including:
• luteinizing hormone, which plays a part in menstrual cycles and pregnancy and tells men when to release testosterone;
• prolactin, which helps women produce milk and plays a role in maintaining immune system cells in both genders (women have a lot more prolactin at all times than men);
• thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism and blood pressure;
• adrenal corticotrophic hormone, which stimulates: the adrenal cortex to produce cortisone that helps regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and response to stress;
• aldosterone that helps regulate water metabolism and blood pressure; and the sex hormone it produces (such as testosterone for women);
• and growth hormone, which, uh, helps you grow.
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1 AnswerNewYork-Presbyterian Hospital answered
When a 50-year-old Costa Rican man began to lose his sight, became increasingly weak, then collapsed early last year, he was taken to the local emergency room. Doctors there discovered a tumor on his pituitary gland the size of a tangerine. The growth was benign but was pressing on his optic nerve and encroaching on other parts of his brain. Surgeons on the island tried removing the tumor using a new, minimally invasive approach – operating through the patient's nose – but got only a fraction of the tumor. As his condition deteriorated he contacted neurosurgeons at several major US hospitals in a search for one who would be willing to try the same, minimally invasive procedure. Each doctor he spoke to told him this approach was impossible, that it would be necessary to remove the tumor by opening up his skull. Then, through the internet, he found Theodore Schwartz, MD, and Vijay K. Anand, MD.
Dr. Schwartz, a neurosurgeon, and Dr. Anand, an otolaryngologist work as a team at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, and each year perform 50 to 60 minimally invasive surgeries on the skull base, the complex area of the brain behind the face where the pituitary gland is located. Drs. Schwartz and Anand studied this patient's medical records, told him they would be able to get his tumor out, and after he flew to New York they removed the growth through his nose. Two weeks after the operation he was back on his feet, his vision was returning, and now, a year later, he is fully recovered.