1 AnswerStacy Wiegman, PharmD, Pharmacy, answeredHyperkalemia is too much potassium in the bloodstream. Potassium helps with basic metabolic functions such as breathing, digestion, body temperature and brain function. Normally, your kidneys remove any extra potassium, but if the kidneys aren't working properly hyperkalemia can occur. Tissue injuries such as burns, surgery, tumors or traumatic injury cause your cells to release potassium which can lead to a buildup. Some medications that affect kidney function, such as amiloride or potassium supplements, can also cause hyperkalemia.
1 AnswerStacy Wiegman, PharmD, Pharmacy, answeredHypokalemia is a potassium level that's too low. Potassium is needed for normal bodily functions, especially for nerves and muscles. Some medications, like diuretics that cause frequent urination, can contribute to low potassium levels. Also, low potassium can be triggered by diarrhea from illness or from taking too many laxatives. Because the kidneys help keep a normal balance of potassium in the body, kidney disorders can affect potassium levels. Excess vomiting due to illness or bulimia can also cause hypokalemia.
Hyponatremia is a condition of low sodium concentration in the blood. It is important to point out that it is not a condition of low sodium alone, but low sodium concentration. This means that the actual amount of sodium in your body is not the culprit, it's the amount of sodium in relation to your body fluids. Therefore, it is actually more a measure of your hydration status.
To explain further: if you are dehydrated, your body fluid level is low, and so your sodium concentration tends to be higher, on the hypernatremic side. If you are overhydrated, meaning you have a lot of fluid in your body relative to sodium, then you are on the hyponatremic side.
There are many causes of hyponatremia, but what I would like to focus on is what is called Exercise Associated Hyponatremia (EAH). This is a condition where athletes, typically endurance athletes such as marathoners, drink too much during exercise and basically dilute out their sodium. In most, if not all, cases those with EAH actually weigh more at the end of the race than at the beginning. In mild forms athletes may only have fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. However hyponatremia is a potentially lethal condition and there have been reported cases of athletes dying from it as well.
EAH was first described in the 1980's and became more prevalent in the 90's and the early part of this century. The timing corresponded to some research that showed a detriment in performance with as little as 2% body weight loss during exercise (which has since been challenged with new research), attributed to dehydration. At this time there was also a surge of beginner and "weekend warrior" runners getting more involved in marathons and longer duration events. At races, especially marathons, runners were encouraged and even urged to drink as much as they could throughout the race to stave off the dreaded dehydration in the hopes of maximizing performance. The sad result was a lot of sick runners and a handful of deaths.
Oddly enough, there are still quite a few people out there who hold on to the idea of aggressive hydration during long events, especially marathons, including those within the sports medicine field and race organizers.
So, do not listen to anyone who recommends drinking a certain amount of fluid every "x" minutes! The official recommendation of leading experts is to drink to thirst only. In addition, drinking Gatorade or other sports drinks instead of water does not prevent EAH.Helpful? 1 person found this helpful.
3 AnswersHelpful? 1 person found this helpful.
1 AnswerdotFIT answered
Yes, you don’t need to drink in excess, you simply need to make sure you start your activity completely hydrated and replace what you use as you go through your activity and/or daily routine. For healthy sedentary adults living in temperate climates: Men: 125 oz (~3qts) of water per day from all dietary sources; Women: 91 oz (~2qts) of water per day from all dietary sources. ~20% of your fluid requirements will come from foods you eat. Below are for athletes and exercisers:
General Fluid Requirements
- Fluids should be cold, palatable and selected based on the type and duration of the activity.
- Sports drinks should contain four to eight percent carbohydrate. Drinks greater than 10 percent carbohydrate may slow stomach emptying, cause abdominal cramping and impair performance.
- Drinks with a combination of glucose, glucose polymers and fructose may enhance water absorption.
- Drink approximately 16 to 24 ounces of fluid two hours before activity.
- On warm or humid days, drink an additional eight to 16 ounces 30 to 60 minutes before activity.
- Water is adequate for activities less than an hour as long as meals are consumed regularly.
- For endurance events, training sessions longer than 60 minutes, or multiple practices a day, choose a sport drink containing four to eight percent carbohydrate (e.g. Gatorade).
- Depending on your sport, consume three to six fluid ounces of water or sports drink every 15 minutes. This equates to approximately 32 ounces per hour.
- For prolonged exercise greater than 60 minutes, choose a sports drink with small amounts of electrolytes.
- Immediately following activity, drink at least 16 to 20 ounces of fluid for every pound of weight lost to ensure proper rehydration. Supervise your youth athletes to ensure they drink the entire amount of fluid you provide.
- A liquid shake with high carbohydrate content, minimal protein and fat can refuel energy stores and maximize recovery after demanding training bouts. Consume this as soon as possible after workouts or events. The dotFIT FirstString™ Powder meets the NCAA guidelines and is ideal for youth and college athletes.
- Drink an additional 16 ounces with your post workout meal. This meal should be consumed within two hours after activity.
- Weigh yourself each morning. A fairly stable weight generally indicates proper fluid balance.
1 AnswerJoane Goodroe, Nursing, answered
This answer is provided by Dr. James Norman of the Norman Parathyroid Clinic:
There is a lot written about high calcium being caused by cancer, however, this is not very common. Let us say that again... It is very RARE for high blood calcium to be due to cancer. We know that if you search "high calcium" on the Internet you will find lots of web sites that talk about high calcium being caused by cancer...but relax, that's just because there are a LOT more websites in the world discussing cancer than there are websites dedicated to parathyroid disease. HOWEVER, if you are sitting at a computer researching about your own high calcium, then you are almost guaranteed to NOT have cancer. Keep reading and you will see that people who are not in the hospital dying of cancer and have a high calcium on a blood test almost never have cancer and almost always DO have hyperparathyroidism. This must be fixed, but it is not cancer... its caused by a hormone problem.
For more information, go to: http://parathyroid.com/high-calcium.htm
1 AnswerA diver’s training and competition environment is often warm and humid, (especially on pool deck), which can increase fluid loss from the body. Divers should consume fluid regularly during both dry land and pool training to prevent dehydration. This is particularly true when training or competing outdoors in hot, humid conditions.
1 AnswerHyponatremia (also called water intoxication), is the result too much fluid in your body for the amount of sodium that is available. Your body protects the concentration of sodium in your blood, always keeping it within a narrow range. In extreme circumstances, if you drink excessive amounts of plain water it causes a low concentration of sodium in the blood and your body can’t correct it fast enough. This is most common at endurance events, when a participant sweats a lot, and then puts a large volume of water back in (without sodium). The early warning signs are often subtle and may be similar to dehydration and include nausea, muscle cramps, disorientation, slurred speech, and confusion. You can prevent hyponatremia by drinking a sports drink instead of water for activity lasting longer than one hour, or using electrolyte tablets in your water.
1 AnswerNot necessarily. If someone is so dehydrated that they have stopped sweating, that is a sign of heat stroke and you would notice other alarming signs as well (i.e. hyperventilating, confused, dizzy, nausea, etc.). Instead, the non-sweating exercise or sport participant simply needs less water to keep their body cool than does a heavier sweater.