Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro TESE) is a procedure performed for men who have a sperm production problem and are azoospermic (they have no sperm in their ejaculate). Microdissection TESE is performed in the operating room with general anesthesia under the operating microscope. Micro TESE is carefully coordinated with the female partner’s egg retrieval, and is performed the day before egg retrieval. This allows for each partner to be there for the other’s procedure. Patients frequently have donor sperm backup in the case that sperm are not found in the male partner. Micro TESE has significantly improved sperm retrieval rates in azoospermic (zero sperm count) men, and is a safer procedure since less testicular tissue is removed. Patients often cryopreserve (freeze) sperm for future in vitro fertilization procedures.