Human Anatomy

Human Anatomy

Recently Answered

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    AMehmet Oz, MD, Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Pears are plagued by what many of you may know as “junk in the trunk.” Pears carry most of their weight on their lower hips, thighs, and butt, and perhaps most frustrating of all, a stubborn pooch of tummy fat. While it may take longer to accumulate this kind of fat, it’s also much harder to get rid of. Why? This kind of fat is influenced by estrogen, according to nutrition specialist Dr. Jeffrey Morrison. And estrogen makes fat. When a woman gets pregnant, estrogen spikes (which is why many women keep the weight on long after the baby is born). When a woman has a heavy period, estrogen spikes -- making more fat. The good news is that this kind of fat is not as dangerous as belly fat, but it may be more unsightly, as it can become that cheesy, cellulite-type fat that is every woman’s nightmare. And while an apple cannot become a pear, with excessive weight gain, a pear may wind up transforming into an apple.

    Pears are at a higher risk for osteoporosis. During menopause, pears make much weaker estrogen, which is not strong enough to keep calcium in the bones. Other health issues for this type are cellulite, varicose veins, and joint problems.
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    AMehmet Oz, MD, Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Apples have a tendency to put on belly fat, may have round faces, have humps on their upper backs, and may have thin legs. Traditional methods of weight loss like cutting calories and aggressive exercise routines do not work for this body type, according to nutrition specialist Dr. Jeffrey Morrison.

    Why? A low-calorie diet and too much exercise translate as starvation and stress to this body type, which can increase the production of cortisol, the stress hormone. Increased amounts of cortisol can slow metabolism and is known to contribute to belly fat and an increased waist size. Cortisol also floods the body with sugar. When your body does not use it for energy, it gets stored as fat. Belly fat is especially dangerous because it surrounds so many of your vital organs.

    Apples may also suffer a lot of inflammation or pain, particularly in the joints, back, or neck. They are also at greater risk for high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and breast cancer.
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    AHealthyWomen answered
    Where excess body fat is distributed on your body plays a role in your risk for disease. Weight gain around your waist (specifically in your abdominal area) is more of a health risk than weight gained on your hips and thighs. Unlike fat around the thighs, which is more common in women and is more likely to serve as an energy reservoir, abdominal fat deposits fatty acids directly into the bloodstream for immediate short-term energy, increasing triglyceride and, eventually, cholesterol levels. Therefore, excess abdominal fat is associated with an increase in blood cholesterol and insulin resistance, which may result in diabetes. An "apple shaped" figure may also raise your risks for other life-threatening illnesses, such as heart disease and stroke.
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    AMay Wakamatsu, MD, Gynecology, answered
    The urinary system, the intestines, and the reproductive organs are supported by ligaments and the pelvic floor. The pelvic floor is an important network of muscles and connective tissue that extends from your pubic bone to your tailbone, with openings for the urethra and anus, as well as the vagina in women. Most of the time, certain pelvic muscles stay contracted to hold the pelvic organs in place against the pull of gravity.

    When you are active or trying to avoid urination, you can voluntarily tighten these muscles, along with the external urethral sphincter, to provide added support and prevent leakage. When you urinate, your pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter relax, and your bladder muscles contract, sending the urine from the bladder, through the urethra, and out of the body. When the bladder is empty, the bladder muscles relax, and the sphincter and pelvic muscles tighten.
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    The femoral triangle is an area in the upper medial aspect of the thigh, where the femoral nerve, artery, and vein pass through. It is bordered by the inguinal ligament at the top, the sartorius muscle on the lateral side, and the adductor longus medially.

    (This answer provided for NATA by the University of Tampa Athletic Training Education Program)

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    When we sweat, true cooling comes from the evaporation of that sweat. Humidity impairs the body’s ability to evaporate sweat. Thus, humidity reduces the body’s ability to give off heat and cool itself.

    (This answer provided for NATA by the Marist College Athletic Training Education Program.)

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    A fistula is an communication that connects internal structures with the body’s surface. This can be surgically created but usually it is an abnormal formation that requires treatment.
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    ADeborah Raines, MSN, Nursing, answered on behalf of Honor Society of Nursing (STTI)
    Basal body temperature is the temperature of the body under conditions of absolute rest. It is the lowest temperature attained by the body when at complete rest, which is usually during sleep.
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    AMehmet Oz, MD, Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Oftentimes people don't realize that the body has its own extraordinary internal detoxification system. Here's a brief look at three critical organs involved:
    • The Liver: Your first line of defense against toxins is your liver, which acts like a filter in preventing toxic substances contained in foods from passing into your blood stream.
    • The Colon: This organ has bacteria that produce both healthy and unhealthy chemicals. You want to keep your colon flowing regularly since its main role is to flush out toxic chemicals before they can do you any harm.
    • The Kidneys: Like clockwork, the kidneys are constantly filtering your blood and getting rid of toxins in the form of urine.

    This content originally appeared on doctoroz.com
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    AWilliam Salt, MD, Gastroenterology, answered
    There are multiple organ systems at work within you, all of which are in
    relationship with one another.

    The main organ systems of your body include:

    Circulatory system: heart, blood, blood vessels, and lymphatics

    Digestive system: esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon

    Endocrine system: pituitary, thyroid, ovaries, and testes

    Immune system: organs (including lymphatics and spleen), special
    cells, proteins, and tissues

    Integumentary system: skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands

    Muscular system: muscles

    Nervous system: brain, spinal cord, and nerves

    Reproductive system: uterus, penis, ovaries, and testes

    Respiratory system: nose, larynx, trachea, diaphragm, bronchi, and
    lungs

    Skeletal system: bones, cartilage, and joints

    Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra