A Answers (3)
Mehmet Oz, MD, Cardiology, answeredFrigid temperatures thicken your blood and constrict your arteries, which elevates your blood pressure. Those changes are a one-two punch for your heart, leaving it more vulnerable to a heart attack. Add overexertion (such as shoveling the driveway), and you’re primed for a visit to the ER. So take it easy before starting physical activity, and warm up slowly. If you must do hard work, such as shoveling snow, work in small intervals, taking breaks often. Better yet, if you are over 50 or know you are at risk for heart disease, ask someone else to do it, or invest in a snow blower.
When the weather outside is frightful, it can also take a toll on your heart. Many people aren't conditioned to the physical stress of outdoor activities and don't know the dangers of being outdoors in cold weather, including hypothermia.
Hypothermia means the body temperature has fallen below 95 degrees Fahrenheit. It happens when your body can't produce enough energy to keep the internal body temperature warm enough, and it can even kill you. Heart failure causes most deaths in hypothermia. Symptoms include lack of coordination, mental confusion, slowed reactions, shivering and sleepiness. Children, the elderly, and those with heart disease are at special risk.
As people age, their ability to maintain a normal internal body temperature often decreases. Because elderly people seem to be relatively insensitive to moderately cold conditions, they can suffer hypothermia without knowing they're in danger.
Keep in mind a few basic tips to keep warm and protect your heart. Start by wearing layers of clothing, which traps air between layers, forming a protective insulation. Also, wear a hat or headscarf. Heat can be lost through your head. And ears are especially prone to frostbite. Keep your hands and feet warm, too, as they tend to lose heat rapidly.
Don't drink alcoholic beverages before going outdoors or when outside. Alcohol gives an initial feeling of warmth, because blood vessels in the skin expand. Heat is then drawn away from the body's vital organs.
When outdoor temperatures drop, you may not realize it, but your heart has to work harder. In fact, according to the American Heart Association, heart failure causes most deaths from hypothermia - a dangerous condition in which the body’s temperature falls below normal. Additionally, cold temperatures increase heart attack risk, though the reasons are not fully understood.
If you have known heart disease or are simply interested in safeguarding your heart’s health, learning about the effects of cold weather on the heart can help you keep wintertime safe and enjoyable.
Your Heart in the Cold
The heart is a fist-sized muscle that pumps blood through your arteries to organs and tissues throughout your body. When temperatures drop, the heart has to work harder to help maintain your body’s core temperature. Additionally, walking through heavy snow or lifting shovels full of snow can be unexpectedly strenuous work for anyone who only completes those tasks occasionally. Some researchers think cold weather may influence the human body in other ways (such as hormones or blood vessel constriction) to also increase the likelihood of a heart attack.
If You Have Heart Disease
Cold weather can be dangerous for anyone, but it is particularly dangerous for people with existing heart disease. Even if you do not have known heart disease, it is still important to bundle up with layers of clothes when going outside, wear a hat to reduce heat loss from your head, and to go slowly when shoveling or doing other physically challenging tasks. If you know you have heart disease, the same warnings apply, but much more strongly. Before cold weather strikes, ask your physician about safe levels of exposure to the cold and what activities are likely okay - and which should be left to someone without heart disease.
Hypothermia and heart attack are both medical emergencies. If you suspect either, dial 9-1-1 immediately.
Heart attack symptoms
- Chest discomfort (Remember: not all people with heart attacks have chest pain.)
- Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach
- Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort
- Breaking out in a cold sweat, or feeling nauseous or lightheaded
- Exhaustion or drowsiness
- Memory loss
- Fumbling hands
- Slurred speech