The mitral valve is a one-way valve made up of two leaflets that conducts blood flow from the lung through the left side of the heart. Mitral regurgitation, also called insufficiency, is a condition when the mitral valve malfunctions and permits blood from the left ventricle to leak backwards towards the lungs.
Treatment of mitral regurgitation depends on the severity of the case. It can sometimes be reduced with medications, but surgical repair or replacement with a prosthetic valve remains the definitive course of action.
In many cases, the mitral valve can be repaired by reconstructing the native valve tissues to restore normal structure and function. In fact, the mitral valve is the most commonly repaired heart valve.