Heart Disease

Recently Answered

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    AGabe Vorobiof, MD, Cardiology, answered
    Not all aortic syndromes require surgery as the main treatment. On occasion, people can be followed by an experienced clinician who is well versed in aortic disease. Treatment may involve medication along with non-invasive imaging testing, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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    AMurray Kwon, MD, Cardiothoracic Surgery, answered on behalf of UCLA Health
    A type B aortic dissection involves a descending thoracic aorta. Often, this can be treated medically with blood pressure medicine. Complicated type B dissections, however, are ones that have ruptured or are at risk of rupture, or ones that have stopped blood flow to one or more vital organs. These dissections often require emergency intervention.
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    AMurray Kwon, MD, Cardiothoracic Surgery, answered on behalf of UCLA Health
    An aortic dissection -- a tear that creates a separation of the layers of the aorta, which carries blood to the body -- is considered acute within two weeks of its presentation. Often, it is complicated by rupture or risk of rupture, or obstruction of blood flow to one or more parts of the body, and requires emergency intervention.
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    AMurray Kwon, MD, Cardiothoracic Surgery, answered on behalf of UCLA Health
    A type A aortic dissection involves the first part of the aorta, the ascending aorta, as it comes off the heart. It is a surgical emergency and is therefore repaired in the operating room. The surgery entails replacement of the dissected portion of the aorta with a Dacron tube. Even with successful repair, however, there are often portions of the aorta in other parts of the body that remain dissected or torn and require lifelong surveillance.
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    ABenjamin K. Yang, MD, Cardiology, answered on behalf of Sky Ridge Medical Center
    Genetics, or your family history, plays an important role in the development of coronary artery disease. Family history refers to first-degree relatives -- parents, siblings and children. The age at which family members developed coronary artery disease is important to know. Risk is increased if coronary artery disease or heart attack occurred before age 55 for a man or age 65 or before menopause for a woman.

    Sometimes, high cholesterol can also be due to genetic factors, which can lead to an earlier or more aggressive development of coronary artery disease
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    ABenjamin K. Yang, MD, Cardiology, answered on behalf of Sky Ridge Medical Center
    Doctors hope that every coronary stent that they put in will last forever, and generally a lot of them do. Current technology includes a stent with drug coating on it, which helps to prevent reblockage within the stent while the artery is healing.

    There have been very low reblockage issues with stent placement. Trials have shown that there is a reblockage rate of around 5% after two to five years. For certain stents, that rate seems to plateau off. For other stents, the rate still seems to climb every year; however, the latest generation of stents has lower reblockage rates.
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    ABarry L. Molk, MD, Cardiology, answered on behalf of Sky Ridge Medical Center
    In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) there is a buildup of cholesterol and plaque in the arteries. The narrowed arteries prevent blood from getting to the muscle of the leg, and the muscle then has difficulty performing when it's being asked to do some activity and not getting enough fuel. The leg hurts and becomes weak.

    It's important to know that PAD is not limited to the peripheral arteries. Plaque buildup is also present in the coronary arteries. Therefore, people who have PAD (or think they may have it) should be evaluated for high cholesterol and coronary artery disease.
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    ABarry L. Molk, MD, Cardiology, answered on behalf of Sky Ridge Medical Center
    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) occurs when narrowing or blockage in the arteries limits blood flow to your limbs. In general, when the legs don’t get enough blood because of blocked arteries, they hurt. The pain associated with PAD is almost always related to walking. People who get leg cramps at night do not have PAD, but the cramping pain that people get at night is the same pain that PAD produces when you’re walking.

    PAD is often considered a disease in the legs, but it also includes disease of the arteries going to the brain and the carotid arteries.
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    Even with improved treatments, many people with a congenital heart defect (CHD) are not cured, even if their heart defect has been repaired. People with a CHD can develop other health problems over time, depending on their specific heart defect, the number of heart defects they have and the severity of their heart defect. Some of these health problems that might develop include irregular heart beat (arrhythmias), increased risk of infection in the heart muscle (infective endocarditis) or weakness in the heart. People with a CHD need routine checkups with a cardiologist (heart doctor) to stay as healthy as possible.

    The presence of the CDC logo and CDC content on this page should not be construed to imply endorsement by the US Government of any commercial products or services, or to replace the advice of a medical professional. The mark “CDC” is licensed under authority of the PHS.
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    ADonnica Moore, MD, Obstetrics & Gynecology, answered
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    There are specific guidelines for results of the C-reactive protein (CRP) test, which reflects inflammation related to heart disease risk. Watch women's health specialist Donnica Moore, MD, discuss what the test levels indicate with regard to risk.