There are three general types of surgical reconstruction to replace a bladder that has been removed. They are:
Ileal conduit - This procedure has been routinely performed since the 1950s. The internal pouch which holds the urine is made from a small portion of intestinal tract. One end is closed with sutures while the other end is attached to skin on the front side of the abdomen. A stoma is the open end of the conduit attached to the skin. An external appliance (ostomy bag) covers the stoma to collect urine. The ureters are implanted into the back of the ileal conduit.Catheterizable continent diversion pouch - This is a reservoir of bowel with a stoma that is attached to a catheter that empties the bladder. The urine is siphoned out of the urinary reservoir with a small catheter every four to six hours. The pouch may require surgical repair at some point after surgery due to the wear and tear of frequent catheterization. This type of reconstruction is not performed on patients with a history of bowel disease.
Neobladder - A neobladder is a new bladder made of intestines. This internal (new bladder) is connected to the urethra and ureters. After this reconstruction the patient needs to relearn how to void. Some disadvantages of this type of reconstruction are possibility of scar tissue formation at the connection of the urethra and new bladder and incontinence.