Endocrine System

Endocrine System

Your endocrine system works with your nervous system to control important bodily functions. The endocrine systems responsibilities include regulating growth, sexual development and function, metabolism and mood. The endocrine system also helps give your body the energy it needs to function properly. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones are considered chemical messengers, coordinating your body by transferring information from one set of cells to another. Your endocrine system health can be affected by hormone imbalances resulting from impaired glands. A hormone imbalance can cause problems with bodily growth, sexual development, metabolism and other bodily functions. Endocrine system diseases or conditions include diabetes, growth disorders and osteoporosis.

Recently Answered

  • 1 Answer
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    AHealthyWomen answered
    Gonadotropins are hormones -- luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) -- that are given via injection to stimulate ovulation. Gonadotropins stimulate the ovaries directly. They include the following:
    • Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) is an injected medication. HMG (Repronex, Menopur) stimulates the ovaries directly, and is used for women who do not ovulate on their own.
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) directly stimulates the follicles and eggs to grow. FSH drug brand names include Gonal-F, Bravelle and Follistim.
    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulates the egg to mature and the follicle to release its egg.
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    AMehmet Oz, MD, Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Ghrelin is a hormone that controls meal initiation, and leptin is a hormone that regulates fat storage and metabolism. Acupuncture has the ability to influence these obesity hormones. Research measuring the effectiveness of acupuncture for weight loss found treatments increased ghrelin and decreased leptin.

    This content originally appeared on doctoroz.com
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    ADaniel Dumesic, MD, Reproductive Endocrinology, answered on behalf of UCLA Health
    Under normal circumstances, the brain talks to the ovary, and the ovary communicates back to the brain in what is called a negative feedback inhibition system. In other words, the brain sends out hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), that travel into the blood to go to the ovary and make follicles grow. As the follicles grow, they produce estrogen, which returns through the circulation to the brain to tell the brain the follicle has sufficient stimulation. This clamps or suppresses FSH in a closed-loop system. If FSH can be pushed up in the blood, it can drive follicles to grow. This can be done by either inhibiting estrogen production by blocking its synthesis through an enzyme called aromatase or blocking the effects of estrogen in the brain by giving a medicine that is an anti-estrogen.
  • 1 Answer
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    ADaniel Dumesic, MD, Reproductive Endocrinology, answered on behalf of UCLA Health
    When doctors measure testosterone as an important male hormone in women, it’s measured in the early-morning hour or in the early part of the menstrual cycle. This is because testosterone levels change throughout the menstrual cycle by almost 25%. Women also have the highest levels in the morning, due to changes throughout the day in circulating levels of testosterone.

    Doctors can also measure free testosterone, which represents the amount of testosterone that is biologically active. This requires a specific blood test in certain laboratories that have assays developed to measure low amounts of free testosterone in a consistent and reproducible manner.
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    AElizabeth Poynor, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, answered
    Should a woman on hormone therapy for low libido have annual mammogram?

    Most women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) should have an annual mammogram, says Elizabeth Poynor, MD, PhD, a gynecologist-oncologist in New York City. In this video, she explains why you should get an annual mammogram if on HRT.


  • 1 Answer
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    AElizabeth Poynor, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, answered
    What are the risks associated with hormone therapy to treat low libido in women?

    Long-term use of estrogen combined with progesterone can increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. Estrogen therapy may also increase the risk of stroke and blood clots, says Elizabeth Poynor, MD, PhD, a gynecologist-oncologist in New York City.


  • 1 Answer
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    AHealthwise answered

    Hormone therapy is treatment that affects hormones, which are chemicals made by the body. Medicines or surgery may be used to add, block, or remove hormones from the body.

    Hormones can be given as medicine if someone has levels that are too low, such as with diabetes or during menopause. Or they may be given to block the body’s natural hormones to slow or stop cancer cell growth, such as with breast or prostate cancer. Sometimes surgery may be used to remove the gland that makes the hormone.

    Side effects will depend on the type of hormone therapy that is used. These can include hot flashes, blood clots, and loss of sex drive.



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  • 1 Answer
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    Once a pancreatic cyst has been clearly identified, a treatment plan is determined. In many cases, people return for follow-up monitoring every six or 12 months. In some cases, additional biopsies may be needed, which are performed by gastroenterologists and an interventional endoscopist. After that point, treatment will depend on what the ultrasound and biopsy show.
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    Some types are benign, with virtually no likelihood of becoming cancerous, while others are more likely to become malignant. Some forms have up to a 70% chance of becoming cancerous. For this reason, it is essential that all cysts be carefully evaluated. While it is possible to view a cyst on a CT scan or MRI, these tests do not tell us everything we need to know about what kind of cyst it is; in order to get a closer look, we have to extract cells with a needle, and a pathologist can then identify which type it is.
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    Between one and two percent of the general population will develop an IPMN, or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (pancreatic cyst), and research indicates the incidence is increasing. Most pancreatic cysts do not cause symptoms, so they are usually found incidentally during a CT scan or MRI that was ordered for another reason, such as a kidney stone.