- Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) is an injected medication. HMG (Repronex, Menopur) stimulates the ovaries directly, and is used for women who do not ovulate on their own.
- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) directly stimulates the follicles and eggs to grow. FSH drug brand names include Gonal-F, Bravelle and Follistim.
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulates the egg to mature and the follicle to release its egg.
1 AnswerHealthyWomen answeredGonadotropins are hormones -- luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) -- that are given via injection to stimulate ovulation. Gonadotropins stimulate the ovaries directly. They include the following:
1 AnswerMehmet Oz, MD, Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answeredGhrelin is a hormone that controls meal initiation, and leptin is a hormone that regulates fat storage and metabolism. Acupuncture has the ability to influence these obesity hormones. Research measuring the effectiveness of acupuncture for weight loss found treatments increased ghrelin and decreased leptin.
This content originally appeared on doctoroz.com
1 AnswerUnder normal circumstances, the brain talks to the ovary, and the ovary communicates back to the brain in what is called a negative feedback inhibition system. In other words, the brain sends out hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), that travel into the blood to go to the ovary and make follicles grow. As the follicles grow, they produce estrogen, which returns through the circulation to the brain to tell the brain the follicle has sufficient stimulation. This clamps or suppresses FSH in a closed-loop system. If FSH can be pushed up in the blood, it can drive follicles to grow. This can be done by either inhibiting estrogen production by blocking its synthesis through an enzyme called aromatase or blocking the effects of estrogen in the brain by giving a medicine that is an anti-estrogen.
1 AnswerWhen doctors measure testosterone as an important male hormone in women, it’s measured in the early-morning hour or in the early part of the menstrual cycle. This is because testosterone levels change throughout the menstrual cycle by almost 25%. Women also have the highest levels in the morning, due to changes throughout the day in circulating levels of testosterone.
Doctors can also measure free testosterone, which represents the amount of testosterone that is biologically active. This requires a specific blood test in certain laboratories that have assays developed to measure low amounts of free testosterone in a consistent and reproducible manner.
1 AnswerElizabeth Poynor, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, answered
Most women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) should have an annual mammogram, says Elizabeth Poynor, MD, PhD, a gynecologist-oncologist in New York City. In this video, she explains why you should get an annual mammogram if on HRT.
1 AnswerElizabeth Poynor, MD, Gynecologic Oncology, answered
Long-term use of estrogen combined with progesterone can increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. Estrogen therapy may also increase the risk of stroke and blood clots, says Elizabeth Poynor, MD, PhD, a gynecologist-oncologist in New York City.
1 AnswerOnce a pancreatic cyst has been clearly identified, a treatment plan is determined. In many cases, people return for follow-up monitoring every six or 12 months. In some cases, additional biopsies may be needed, which are performed by gastroenterologists and an interventional endoscopist. After that point, treatment will depend on what the ultrasound and biopsy show.
1 AnswerSome types are benign, with virtually no likelihood of becoming cancerous, while others are more likely to become malignant. Some forms have up to a 70% chance of becoming cancerous. For this reason, it is essential that all cysts be carefully evaluated. While it is possible to view a cyst on a CT scan or MRI, these tests do not tell us everything we need to know about what kind of cyst it is; in order to get a closer look, we have to extract cells with a needle, and a pathologist can then identify which type it is.
1 AnswerBetween one and two percent of the general population will develop an IPMN, or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (pancreatic cyst), and research indicates the incidence is increasing. Most pancreatic cysts do not cause symptoms, so they are usually found incidentally during a CT scan or MRI that was ordered for another reason, such as a kidney stone.
1 AnswerPenn Medicine answered
Carcinoid tumors start from cells from the neuroendocrine system; they are like nerve cells in some ways and like hormone-making endocrine cells in other ways. Neuroendocrine cells do not form an actual gland but are scattered throughout the chest and abdomen.
Lung neuroendocrine cells sometimes grow out of control and form tumors. These are known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) or neuroendocrine cancers. NETs can develop anywhere in the body.
There are two other types of lung carcinoid tumors, and their differences can be seen under a microscope:
- Typical carcinoids grow slowly and only rarely spread beyond the lungs. Nearly 90% of lung carcinoids are typical carcinoids. They are usually without symptoms but can sometimes block a bronchial tube and trigger asthma symptoms.
- Atypical carcinoids grow a little faster and are somewhat more likely to spread to other organs. Seen under a microscope, they have more cells in the process of dividing and look more like a fast-growing tumor. They are much less common than typical carcinoids.
Carcinoid tumors are sometimes also classified by where they form in the lung:
- Central carcinoids form in the walls of large airways near the center of the lungs. Most lung carcinoid tumors are central carcinoids, and nearly all of these are also typical carcinoids.
- Peripheral carcinoids develop in the narrower airways toward the edges of the lungs. Most peripheral carcinoids are also typical carcinoids.
Very little is known about what causes lung carcinoid tumors. They probably develop from tiny clusters of neuroendocrine cells in the lung airways called carcinoid tumorlets. Researchers still do not understand how carcinoid tumorlets develop from lung neuroendocrine cells or why tumorlets sometimes grow to become carcinoid tumors, and why others materialize but never grow.