The first symptoms of pregnancy may include a missed period, nausea or vomiting, fatigue, and breast tenderness. Increased heart rate is common as the pregnancy progresses, as are changes in blood pressure. Late in pregnancy, swelling of the legs and feet, frequent urination, and digestive problems such as heartburn are common. Skin rashes, changes in skin pigmentation, and stretch marks are also common during pregnancy.
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Honor Society of Nursing (STTI) answered
Probably the most notable symptom of pregnancy is a missed period unless the woman's period is irregular. During the first trimester, women experience a wide variety of symptoms: nausea, vomiting, some breast enlargement, breast tenderness, heartburn, constipation, urinary frequency, backaches, and fatigue.
During the second trimester, women who are pregnant usually feel great as some of the more unpleasant symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, usually ease up. Women may even have more energy at this time.
During the third trimester, women who are pregnant may start to feel more fatigued and uncomfortable as the fetus is taking up more space. They may experience swelling, or edema, usually in their feet, ankles, and legs.
Every woman's pregnancy is different. Some women hardly have any symptoms at all and some have quite a few of the symptoms throughout their entire pregnancy.
Early signs typically appear, if at all, within the first few weeks after conception. Presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood and urine, detectable by laboratory or home testing, is the most reliable early sign of pregnancy. Other early signs and symptoms of pregnancy include: missed menstrual period; implantation bleeding, light spotting that occurs at implantation of the embryo in the uterus, in the third or fourth week after LMP; increased basal body temperature (body temperature at rest) sustained for over two weeks after ovulation; Chadwick's sign, a darkening of the cervix, vagina, and vulva; Goodell's sign, a softening of the vaginal portion of the cervix; and Hegar's sign, a softening of the cervical isthmus (the portion of the cervix between the uterus and the vaginal portion of the cervix).
Later signs of pregnancy include linea nigra, a darkening of the skin in a vertical line on the abdomen. Linea nigra is caused by hyperpigmentation resulting from hormonal changes. Linea nigra usually appears around the middle of pregnancy. Later symptoms include increasing abdominal swelling, the most visible sign of pregnancy.
Other symptoms may be experienced specifically during the later stages, such as lower backache. Balance and ease of walking may be affected; flatulent and gas; hemorrhoids and rectal irritation; hair loss, others have more body or "facial" hair; and sensitivity in teeth. There is a higher risk for gum disease during pregnancy.
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