• 90-115 mg/dl in the morning when you wake up
• Under 150 mg/dl two hours after eating
Or wherever your doctor says they should be!
Sugar free, calorie free beverages are a good choice if you have diabetes. However sugar free foods are a different story. Food marketers don't make navigating sugar free foods very easy. There are a variety of cookies and ice creams that all say they are sugar free. And while they do not in fact contain sucrose or table sugar they do often contain flour like in baked goods or lactose, the milk sugar in ice cream and they contain carbohydrates which will effect your blood glucose.
Also look out for the sneaky claim "no sugar added, juices might say they have "no sugar added" that does not mean they will not effect your blood sugar.
Instead of looking at the sugar on the food label, look at the Total Carbohydrate, which is in bold on the label because it includes both the sugar and the fiber, which are indented underneath Total Carbohydrates on the label.
Now, if you see sugar alcohols on the nutrition label, know that they are not completely absorbed by our bodies and can cause upset stomach, cramping and diarrhea. Because they are not completely absorbed however, we can subtract HALF of the sugar alcohol grams from the Total Carbohydrate grams, IF the sugar alcohol is greater than 5 grams.
The quick answer is that you don't have to completely avoid eating any food just because you have diabetes. However, some foods are healthier than others. What you'll likely need to focus on is how much carbohydrate you eat. Carbohydrate is found in starchy foods (bread, pasta, rice, and cereal), fruit and fruit juices, milk and yogurt, beans and peas and sweets. You don't need to stop eating these foods but you will need to control how much you do eat. Also, choose the healthier carbs -- these are the carbs that are whole grain, such as brown rice or whole wheat bread, and/or higher in fiber, like fresh fruit and beans.
Go for nonfat or low-fat milk and yogurt. For heart health, choose leaner protein foods, like skinless poultry, seafood, lean red meat, eggs and tofu. And for fat choices, go with healthy fats like olive and canola oil, nuts, seeds and avocado. Limit saturated fat, found in butter, stick margarine, red meat and whole-milk dairy foods. Also, limit the sugary/sweet foods, mostly because they contain empty calories and may also be high in fat. These foods may also raise your blood glucose more quickly than whole grain or unrefined carbs.
Ask your dietitian and doctor about the use of caffeine, alcohol, and artificial sweeteners during pregnancy. Unless you have special needs, it is safe to use the artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K during pregnancy. You need to avoid saccharin during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. Alcohol is generally not recommended for anyone during pregnancy and can increase the risk of hypoglycemia among women with diabetes.