Chromosomal disorders can affect the body in many different ways. What these disorders have in common is that they affect a person's genetic makeup, altering the way they would have otherwise looked, behaved, or functioned. One disorder, Down syndrome, affects the person's facial features and statue, as well as physical and mental development. Another disorder, Turner's syndrome, can affect the person's stature, facial features, learning ability, and heart. chromosomal disorders can also affect the brain, creating mild or severe mental retardation or learning disabilities. Other chromosomal disorders can lead to miscarriage or early infant death.