Question

Brain and Nervous System

What is meningitis?

A Answers (10)

  • Meninges

    Meningitis usually begins with an infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The infection can be bacterial, fungal, or viral, and causes the spinal cord and brain membranes to swell. Although rare in developed countries, parasites like Naegleria fowleri can also cause meningitis, as can non-infectious causes like brain injury or cancer. Viral meningitis typically clears up in a few weeks, while bacterial meningitis can sometimes be more serious and should be treated as an emergency. All forms of meningitis should be evaluated as soon as possible by medical professionals.


    Meninges
  • AHealthwise answered

    Meningitis is swelling of the lining around the brain and spinal cord. It can cause you to have a stiff neck, a fever, a headache, vomiting, trouble staying awake, and seizures. It is usually caused by a virus or bacteria.

    You can spread the germs that cause meningitis through coughing or close contact. Some types of meningitis can be deadly.

    © Healthwise, Incorporated.

  • Meningitis is swelling of the protective membranes, or meninges, covering the brain and spinal cord. The swelling is usually caused by an infection with a bacteria or virus, but meningitis can also be caused by a fungus. Meningitis caused by a fungus is called fungal meningitis. The severity of illness and the treatment for meningitis differ depending on the cause, so knowing the specific cause of meningitis is important.

    (The presence of the CDC logo and CDC content on this page should not be construed to imply endorsement by the U.S. government of any commercial products or services, or to replace the advice of a medical professional. The mark “CDC” is licensed under authority of the PHS.)
  • Meningitis, also called meningococcal disease or spinal meningitis, is inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (called the meninges).

    There are several types of meningitis. The most common is viral meningitis, which is contracted when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels to the brain. Bacterial meningitis is rare, but can be deadly. Initial symptoms usually resemble a cold. Bacterial meningitis can block blood vessels in the brain and lead to stroke and brain damage. It can also harm other organs. Left untreated, bacterial meningitis can be fatal.

    Anyone can get meningitis, but it is more common in individuals whose bodies have trouble fighting off infections and who have poor immune systems, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, the elderly, and the malnourished. Meningitis can progress rapidly.

    Hallmark symptoms of meningitis include all of the following: a sudden fever; a severe headache; and a stiff neck. Individuals experiencing these symptoms should seek medical care.

    In the past, the majority of meningitis cases occurred in children younger than five years. Due to the protection offered by current childhood vaccines, most meningitis cases now occur in young people between the ages of 15-24. The elderly also tend to have a higher incidence of meningitis than do young children due to poor immune health. There are nearly 3,000 cases of meningitis every year in the United States. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 10-12% of the cases are fatal.

    Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death. Vaccines can prevent some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis. Parents of adolescents and students living in college dorms should talk to a doctor about the vaccination.

    You should read product labels, and discuss all therapies with a qualified healthcare provider. Natural Standard information does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

    Copyright © 2012 by Natural Standard Research Collaboration. All Rights Reserved.

  • ABrad Spellberg, MD, Infectious Disease, answered
    An "itis" is an inflammation of whatever the thing is in the word that's before the "itis".  So meningitis is inflammation of the meninges (mening-itis).  The meninges is a three-part layer of connective tissue that surrounds the brain and descends from the skull to surround the spinal cord all the way down the spine.  Inflammation of the meninges (meningitis) can be caused by a variety of infectious, autoimmune, chemical, or cancerous diseases.

    The most common cause of meningitis is viral infection.  A variety of viruses cause meningitis, most of them cause substantial discomfort but are not life-threatening, so-called "viral meningitis".  It is most common in the summer, and patients often have exposure to children (from where they get the enterovirus or other virus causing the infection).  Some viral meningitis is very dangerous, such as that caused by Herpes Simplex Virus.

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening emergency.  A variety of bacteria cause the infection, but the most common in adults is Streptococcus pneumonia.  Young adults (often college aged) and military recruits are prone to Neisseria meningitidis meningitis, which is caused by close contact of large numbers of non-immune people.  A vaccine is available to prevent the latter infection.  A variety of other bacteria can cause it as well. Bacterial meningitis presents with intense headache, fever, and a rigid neck--patients can't bend their neck at all.  Viral meningitis tends to be milder, but still there is lots of overlap, so the only way to distinguish life threatening from more benign infection is by doing a spinal tap (AKA lumbar puncture in medical lingo).

    Fungal meningitis is seen in certain geographical areas in the US (southwestern US sees lots of cocci meningitis), or in patients with compromised immune systems.  TB can also cause chronic meningitis.

    A variety of non-infectious diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosis, systemic vasculitis of a variety of types, medication reactions (NSAIDs, sulfa drugs, etc.), chemical reactions to blood in the cerebralspinal fluid (such as occurs after a ruptured aneurysm), and leukemias, lymphomas, and certain carcinomas (such as breast) can also cause meningitis.  A spinal tap is necessary to make the diagnosis.

    Treatments vary by underlying disease.
  • ALeigh Vinocur, MD, Emergency Medicine, answered
    Meningitis is a serious, sometimes life-threatening infection of the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is one of those very serious diagnoses that if suspected in the emergency room, doctors act on quickly -- usually with a spinal tap to look at and test the fluid around those membranes and immediate intravenous antibiotic treatment. Many different types of germs can cause it. One of the most serious bacterial meningitis infections, meningococcal meningitis, is due to a bacteria called Neisseria meningitides. 

    This content orignally appeared on doctoroz.com.
  • AMarch of Dimes answered

    Meningitis is an infection that causes swelling in the brain and spinal cord. It’s usually caused by a virus or bacteria. The infection can spread from person to person through coughing, sneezing, kissing or sharing drinks.

    Most people get meningitis from a virus. If you get this kind of meningitis, you’ll probably get better in a few days without treatment. But the meningitis caused by bacteria can lead to brain damage and even death.

    Adults may have symptoms like headache, fever and a stiff neck. These symptoms are sometimes mistaken for the flu. Babies may show different symptoms, like high fever, constant crying or even seizures.

    If you think anyone if your family has meningitis, see your health care provider right away.

    The Hib vaccine can protect against bacteria that cause meningitis. Your baby gets the Hib vaccine in three to four doses: at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and between 12 and 15 months. Some brands of the vaccine require a shot at 6 months, but others don’t. Ask your provider if you have questions about when your baby gets the vaccine.

  • Meningitis is an infection of the tissue layer (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord. Usually, meningitis is caused by either a virus or bacteria. Meningitis from a virus (viral meningitis) happens more often in the summer. Meningitis from bacteria (bacterial meningitis) happens more in the winter. Fungus can also cause meningitis (fungal meningitis). This is most common in people with a weak immune system.

    Boys get meningitis more often than girls. No one knows why. The infection happens more in infants and children less than two years old.
  • Meningitis usually begins with an infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The infection can be bacterial, fungal, or viral, and causes the spinal cord and brain membranes to swell. Viral meningitis typical clears up in a few weeks, while bacterial meningitis can sometimes be more serious.

    This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

  • Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges (membrane) that surrounds the spinal cord and brain. There are two types of meningitis: bacterial and viral. Bacterial meningitis can be fatal if not treated promptly. Viral meningitis is less severe and can be easily treated with medication.

    (This answer provided for NATA by the Georgia College & State University Athletic Training Education Program.)
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