Monitor your diet. Get the recommended amounts of vitamin D and calcium each day. Read food labels for calcium content. Although dairy products may be the richest sources, a growing number of foods, such as orange juice, are calcium-fortified. Fruits, vegetables, and grains are also important, because the plant kingdom is a good provider of other minerals that contribute to bone, such as magnesium and phosphorus. While the Nurses' Health Study found that consuming 95 grams or more of animal protein a day may increase the risk for osteoporosis, some protein is essential for maintaining muscle mass.
Maintain a reasonable weight. A body mass that is too low to support menstruation -- because of anorexia or excessive exercise -- is usually a sign that estrogen levels are too low to promote bone growth.
Avoid cigarettes and too much alcohol. Both decrease bone mass, and heavy alcohol use can also make you more apt to fall.
Perform weight-bearing exercises regularly. Regular weight-bearing exercise can protect your bones. Make strength training a part of your exercise routine. Exercise offers a wide array of health benefits, including reducing your risk of developing heart disease, lowering blood pressure, boosting your energy level and your mood, and decreasing your chances of developing colon cancer and diabetes.
Review your health status. If you have conditions or take medications that reduce bone mass, ask your doctor what you can do to counteract these effects.