- Q Why did my mother's bladder biopsy show atypical cells?
Dr. Howard LeWine, Internal MedicineThe term "atypical cells" often describes cells that look abnormal when viewed with a microscope, but that do not fit into any specific category. They do not show changes that could be called cancerous. However, they might turn into cancerous cells in... Full Answer
- Q What is external sphincter insufficiency (ESD)?
Dr. Jill Rabin, Obstetrics & GynecologyExternal sphincter insufficiency (ESD), the most common of the two types of stress incontinence, causes urine leakage when the abdominal muscles tighten (during coughing, laughing, sneezing), thus creating abdominal pressure against the bladder and... Full Answer
- Q What are the treatments for an enlarged bladder?
Dr. Anthony Komaroff, Internal MedicineThe bladder holds between 10 and 14 ounces of urine comfortably in most adults. Urine is produced constantly by the kidneys and then flows into the bladder for storage. The urine is held in the bladder by a valve-like muscle called the sphincter, which... Full Answer