The main function of your bladder is to store and release urine. Your bladder is located in your lower abdomen and collects urine from your kidneys. As the bladder fills, nerves in the bladder tell you that you need to urinate. Bladder diseases can cause pain and affect the way your bladder functions. Bladder problems and diseases include urinary tract infections (UTIs), bladder cancer and loss of bladder control. Bacteria can cause infection in the urinary tract and the bladder. There are ways you can prevent bladder infection. See your doctor if you are having bladder problems. Many bladder problems are treatable and symptoms will not go away if you ignore them. Treatments vary, depending on your bladder problem. Tests used by doctors to diagnose bladder diseases include urine tests and x-rays.
1 AnswerExstrophy is an uncommon congenital bladder anomaly that results when the tissue making up the abdominal wall is deficient and the bladder is a flat sheet on the abdominal wall instead of a sphere inside the pelvis. Urine leaks out of the abdominal wall from the exposed ureteral orifices. This is associated with pubic separation and epispadias, which is a severe congenital curvature and foreshortening of the penis.
1 AnswerThe goals of treatment in reflux are to prevent infected urine from reaching the kidney which can cause pyelonephritis (kidney infection), scarring, hypertension, proteinuria and even end stage renal disease. Because of this many of these children are placed on daily low-dose antibiotics. In the case of high grade reflux or if the condition is associated with a concomitant condition that makes resolution unlikely, surgical repair is an appropriate option.
1 AnswerHoward LeWine, Internal Medicine, answeredThe term "atypical cells" often describes cells that look abnormal when viewed with a microscope, but that do not fit into any specific category. They do not show changes that could be called cancerous. However, they might turn into cancerous cells in the future. Or they could mean that cancerous cells are close by.
Figuring out what it means to find atypical cells on a biopsy of the lining of the bladder is especially challenging. It's possible that inflammation of the bladder wall or a low-grade infection is causing the cells to look atypical.
Your mother will need to continue to see her urologist for periodic check-ups. (This specialist focuses on the bladder and performs bladder biopsies.)
Even if her urine becomes clear with no more red blood cells, and other tests on the urine are normal, she should still ask her urologist if at least one more look inside is needed in the future. (By the way, irritation of the lining of the bladder from any cause can allow red blood cells to leak into the urine.)
Finally, smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. If your mother smokes, she needs to stop immediately.
1 AnswerAnthony Komaroff, MD, Internal Medicine, answeredThe bladder holds between 10 and 14 ounces of urine comfortably in most adults. Urine is produced constantly by the kidneys and then flows into the bladder for storage. The urine is held in the bladder by a valve-like muscle called the sphincter, which is located at the base of the bladder.
When the bladder becomes full, a reflex reaction occurs to empty the bladder. The sphincter muscle relaxes to open the bladder outlet and the bladder wall contracts to squeeze out the urine. In infants, this reflex occurs automatically. After toilet training, we are able to control the reflex so the bladder empties only when we "give it permission."
If the bladder does not empty fully, urine may build up and cause the bladder to become enlarged. The distended bladder may leak, a condition called overflow incontinence.
The treatment depends on the cause, which generally fall into two categories:
- blockage of the bladder outlet
- failure of the bladder to contract enough to push out the urine
Find out more about this book:Harvard Medical School Better Bladder and Bowel Control
Surgical treatments for neurogenic bladder include:
- Sphincterotomy is where the sphincter is cut through a telescope to keep a non-relaxing sphincter open.
- Neuromodulation (Interstim), where a pacemaker like device is implanted to stimulate the nerves to the bladder, is also investigational for neurogenic bladder dysfunction.
- Augmentation Cystoplasty: This is an operation to make the bladder larger using a piece of the patient’s own bowel. Usually, patients will have to catheterize themselves afterward in order to empty.
- Complete Urinary Diversion where a new bladder is created with a piece of intestine. Patients may either be able to void on their own, or catheterize themselves through an inconspicuous stoma on the abdominal wall.
- Botox can also help treat a child for neurogenic bladder.
1 AnswerSpinal Cord Injury - Neurogenic Bladder is a condition where, due to an interruption of the nerve messages between the brain and the bladder, the bladder fails to store or release urine properly.
1 AnswerComplete Urinary Diversion is where a new bladder is created with a piece of intestine. Patients may either be able to void on their own, or catheterize themselves through an inconspicuous stoma on the abdominal wall.
1 AnswerDepending where the lesion or injury is, and its severity, a person may experience a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms such as:
- An inability to store urine – urgency, frequency and incontinence. This is caused by an overactive bladder or a weak sphincter (outlet).
- An inability to release urine – difficulty urinating and urinary retention. This is caused by a weak bladder or an overly tight sphincter.
1 AnswerThere are two main concerns in patients with neurogenic bladders: The first is to protect the kidneys as they have the potential to be harmed. The second is to improve the quality of life by decreasing symptoms.