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Scientists showed that adults ages 55-80 who engaged in a single year of aerobic exercise increased the size of their brains in the area of the hippocampus. This is the area of the brain that's crucial for memory and spatial navigation, two things aging people are most concerned about being compromised as the years pile up. According to the researchers, "starting an exercise regimen later in life is not futile for either enhancing cognition or augmenting brain volume." The study was done by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Illinois, Rice University, and Ohio State, and was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.