2 AnswersStacy Wiegman, PharmD, Pharmacy, answeredLockjaw is a result of infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which is often called tetanus. This organism releases a toxin that causes severe muscle spasms. A common one is spasm in the jaw muscle that causes a tightly closed jaw, also known as lockjaw. Everyone should have a tetanus booster shot every 10 years or at least three times over a lifetime. If you have a wound and have not had a tetanus shot within five to 10 years, you should talk to your doctor about getting one immediately.
3 AnswersJohns Hopkins Medicine answered
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the second most common cause of nosocomial, or treatment-based, infections in the United States and occur when bacteria enter a surgical incision. SSIs lead to increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay, and healthcare costs. Wound infections can spread to adjacent organs or tissue, or to distant areas through the blood stream. Surgical site infections can be avoided by taking several precautions, including ensuring that cleaning the skin, avoid smoking, controlling glucose levels if you have diabetes the incision and cleansing the skin with chlorhexidine, the same soap surgeons use to prep before surgery.
Certain bacteria normally live on parts of your body. They live in or on the:
- mouth and upper respiratory system
- intestinal and urinary tracts
Bacteria can get in the bloodstream. This is called bacteremia. These bacteria can settle on abnormal heart valves or other damaged heart tissue. If this happens, they can damage or even destroy the heart valves. The heart valves are important in guiding blood flow through the heart. They work like doors to keep the blood flowing in one direction. If they become damaged, the results can be very serious.
A brief bacteremia is common after many invasive procedures (medical procedures that break the skin). Certain surgical and dental procedures are examples. Not all bacteria cause endocarditis, though. Only certain kinds do.
1 AnswerYes. A child who has had rheumatic fever is much more likely than others to have another “attack.” Taking an antibiotic (usually penicillin) regularly for many years can prevent most recurrences. The antibiotic prevents strep throat and protects the patient from getting rheumatic fever again.
1 AnswerNDM-1 is a newly discovered enzyme that makes bacteria particularly resistant to many antibiotics. Thus far, three cases were identified by the CDC antimicrobial (antibacterial) labs in the US and several more in the UK. In all three US cases and many of the UK cases, the bacteria have been linked to patients receiving medical care in India and Pakistan.
The first case of NDM-1 was discovered in New Delhi, India (in 2009), thus the name New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase or NDM-1. The typical antibiotics used to treat such beta-lactamase bacteria are called carbapenems, however, NDM-1 bacteria are resistant to such antibiotics.
While many in the news are calling NDM-1 a “superbug” given its resistance to carbapenems, its incidence is still quite rare. Only one reported death has been attributed to NDM-1 with many of the cases coming from patients hospitalized overseas, particularly in India and Pakistan.
In March, 2009 the CDC published its “Guidance for Control of Infections with Carbapenem-Resistant or Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Acute Care Facilities” to help prevent transmission.
What you need to know:
- It is linked to people who have had surgeries in India and Pakistan mostly.
- There have been some cases in the U.K. as a result of people who had surgeries in India or Pakistan and were subsequently hospitalized in the U.K.
- It can be any bug, so in other words, there are no specific symptoms to look out for. It can be a GI bug, or a skin bug, or a respiratory bug.
- This particular enzyme is still rare among bacteria in the U.S.
- Prevention: the usual, most effective way: GOOD HYGIENE!!!!!
2 AnswersRheumatic fever may affect many parts of the body. It can affect the heart and produce inflamed or scarred heart valves. It can also cause painful, swollen joints; skin rash, especially on the chest or abdomen; abnormal movements; or bumps under the skin.
2 AnswersSecondsCount.org answered
In rheumatic fever (also called rheumatic heart disease), the heart valves are damaged by substances (antibodies) that the body produces to fight streptococcal (strep) infection.
It is not clear why, but rheumatic heart disease affects only a small percentage of those infected with strep throat or other strep infections. Because of the availability of medicines to treat strep infections, rheumatic fever is no longer as common in the United States.
Symptoms of damage to the heart’s valves caused by rheumatic fever may not be noticed for some time. Eventually, damaged heart valves can cause serious, even disabling, problems. These problems depend on how severe the damage is and which heart valve is affected. The most advanced condition is congestive heart failure, in which an enlarged heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to the body.
There are other symptoms associated with rheumatic fever that are not heart related. These include joint pain and swelling that changes through different joints, skin rash (typically on the trunk or arms), subcutaneous nodules (painless bumps that typically appear on the back of the wrist, outside elbow, or front of the knees), or abnormal rapid limb movements (Sydenham’s chorea).