Arteriolosclerosis is caused by stress on the body's small blood vessels. That means medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure are at the top of the list of risk factors. When a person's blood pressure is above 110/75 mm Hg, the risk of developing circulatory diseases is higher than for a person whose blood pressure is less than 140/90 mm Hg. And because the gradual attack on arterioles takes time, older adults are also at greater risk. As with many conditions that affect people with high blood pressure, diet, lack of exercise, and tobacco use can also cause arteriolosclerosis.