Aplastic anemia has multiple causes, although some cases occur sporadically for no known reason. Other causes are inherited while some are secondary, resulting from a previous illness or disorder. Acquired causes, however, may include the following:
- history of specific infectious diseases such as hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- history of taking certain medications, such as antibiotics and anticonvulsants
- exposure to certain toxins, such as heavy metals
- exposure to radiation
- history of an autoimmune disease, such as lupus.
In patients under 40, aplastic anemia is often cured by treatment including sometimes, bone marrow transplantation. However, cure rates decline significantly in those over 40.