How do I know if I took DES during pregnancy?
It has been estimated that 5 to 10 million people were exposed to DES during pregnancy. Many of these people are not aware that they were exposed. A woman who was pregnant between 1938 and 1971 and had problems or a history of problems during pregnancy may have been given DES or a similar drug. Women... Full Post
What health problems might DES-exposed mothers have?
Women who used DES may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. Current research indicates that the risk of breast cancer in DES-exposed mothers is approximately 30 percent higher than the risk for women who have not been exposed to this drug. This risk has been stable over time, and does... Full Post
What health problems might DES-exposed sons have?
There is some evidence that DES-exposed sons may have testicular abnormalities, such as undescended testicles or abnormally small testicles. The risk for testicular or prostate cancer is unclear; studies of the association between DES exposure in utero and testicular cancer have produced mixed results.... Full Post
What health problems might DES-exposed daughters have?
In 1971, DES was linked to clear cell adenocarcinoma in a small number of daughters of women who had used DES during pregnancy. This uncommon cancer of the vagina or cervix is usually diagnosed between age 15 and 25 in DES-exposed daughters. Some cases have been reported in women in their thirties... Full Post
What is diethylstilbestrol?
DES (diethylstilbestrol) is a synthetic form of estrogen, a female hormone. It was prescribed between 1938 and 1971 to help women with certain complications of pregnancy. Use of DES declined following studies in the 1950s that showed it was not effective in preventing pregnancy complications. When... Full Post
Besides cell phones, what are other sources of RF energy?
The most common use of RF energy is for telecommunications. In the United States, cellular telephones operate in a frequency range of about 1,800 to 2,200 megahertz (MHz). In this range, the electromagnetic radiation produced is in the form of non-ionizing RF energy. AM/FM radios, VHF/UHF televisions,... Full Post
Where can I find more information about RF energy exposure?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which regulates interstate and international communications, provides consumers with information about human exposure to RF energy from cellular telephones and other devices at their Web page includes links to information about the specific absorption... Full Post
What can be done to reduce exposure to RF energy by cell phones?
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have suggested some steps that cellular telephone users can take if they are concerned about potential health risks from cellular telephones:
• Reserve the use of cellular telephones for shorter conversations, or for times when a conventional phone is not... Full Post
Do children have higher risk of developing cancer due to cell phones?
There are currently no data on cellular telephone use and risk of cancer in children because no published studies to date have included children. Cellular telephone use is increasing rapidly in children and adolescents, and they are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives.... Full Post
What body parts may be affected during cell phone use?
There is concern that RF energy produced by cellular phones may affect the brain and nervous system tissue in the head because hand-held cellular telephones are usually held close to the head. Researchers have focused on whether RF energy can cause malignant (cancerous) brain tumors such as gliomas... Full Post
What factors determine RF energy exposure?
A cellular telephone user's level of exposure to RF energy depends on several factors, including:• The number and duration of calls.
• The amount of cellular telephone traffic at a given time.
• The distance from the nearest cellular base station.
• The quality of the cellular t... Full Post
How is a cell phone user exposed to radio frequency energy?
A cellular telephone's main source of RF energy is produced through its antenna. The antenna of a hand-held cellular telephone is in the handset, which is typically held against the side of the head when the telephone is in use. The closer the antenna is to the head, the greater a person's expected... Full Post
What is radio frequency energy and how can it affect the body?
RF energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation can be divided into two types: Ionizing (high-frequency) and non-ionizing (low-frequency). RF energy is a form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Ionizing radiation, such as that produced by x-ray machines, can pose... Full Post
Why is there concern that cell phones may cause cancer?
There are three main reasons why people are concerned that cellular telephones (also known as "wireless" or "mobile" telephones) may cause certain types of cancer:
• Cellular telephones emit radiofrequency (RF) energy (radio waves), which is a form of radiation that is under investigation for... Full Post
What role does environmental exposure play in carcinogenesis?
The term environment includes not only air, water, and soil, but also substances and conditions in the home and workplace. It also includes diet; the use of tobacco, alcohol, or drugs; exposure to chemicals; and exposure to sunlight and other forms of radiation.
• People are exposed to a variety... Full Post