Calcium: There is a link between lower dietary intake of calcium and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Calcium supplementation has been suggested in various clinical trials to decrease overall symptoms associated with PMS, such as depressed mood, water retention, and pain.
Lactobacillus acidophilus: Multiple human studies report that Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal suppositories are effective in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Additional research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be reached. Patients with persistent vaginal discomfort are advised to seek medical attention.
Rose hip: Rose hips are the fruits that develop from the blossoms of the wild rose (Rosaspp.). They are typically orange to red in color, but some species may be purple or black. Estimates of the number of women who experience menstrual cramps with dysmenorrhea range from 50-93%. In 10-26% of women, this pain may be severe. Herbalists have recommended aromatherapy, the therapeutic use of essential oils from plants, as a treatment for menstrual cramps. The oils are absorbed into the body via the olfactory system and the skin. Lavender, clary sage, and rose are three of the oils traditionally used to treat dysmenorrhea.
Sage: Sage (Salvia officinalis) may contain compounds with mild estrogenic activity. In theory, estrogenic compounds may decrease menopausal symptoms. Sage has been tested against menopausal symptoms with promising results.
Vitamin D: Without sufficient vitamin D, inadequate calcium is absorbed and the resulting elevated parathyroid (PTH) secretion causes increased bone resorption. This may weaken bones and increase the risk of fracture. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to slow osteoporosis and reduce fracture, particularly when taken with calcium.
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