Infections are caused by an invasion of organisms into your body, which creates disease. Bacterial infections happen when bacteria enter your body and either produce a harming substance or attack your tissues. Viral infections happen when a virus is ingested, inhaled, or contracted through sexual activity. The virus invades your cells, takes control, and makes the cells reproduce the virus. Parasitic infections are the result of a parasite entering the body, and fungal infections usually happen after fungal spores are inhaled or land on the skin.
Timothy S. Peace, MD
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What causes infections?
Honor Society of Nursing (STTI) answered
What changes can I experience from menarche to menopause?
Boston Women's Health Book Collective, Administration, answered
Girls experience first periods in a variety of ways, as do women experiencing last menstrual cycles. Biology contributes to these variations, but so do the place, time, and culture in which we live. During puberty, we make the transition from childhood to physical maturity. In women, puberty is characterized by growth of the breasts and the pubic and armpit (axillary) hair, and a growth spurt that results in increased height and weight. Bone size and strength stop increasing around puberty, but bone mass continues to grow through the twenties. The reproductive process is regulated by hormones, which are chemicals in the bloodstream and brain that relay messages from one part of the body to another.
The levels of sex hormones are low during childhood, increase tremendously during the reproductive years, and then become lower and balance differently after menopause. The changes women experience around menarche and menopause (and during their entire menstrual lives) are thought to be caused primarily by the changing levels of hormones. Ovulation and menstruation start near the end of puberty, on average at about twelve and a half, though any age from nine to eighteen is normal. The age of menarche varies depending on many factors. (Menarche, pronounced men-ar-kee, is when girls get their first period.) Some factors are biological; for instance, a girl needs her body fat to be about one quarter of her total weight to menstruate. To sustain regular cycles, women also need to eat a balance of fat, carbohydrates (sugars and starches), and protein. Some factors are due to our environments. Women in different cultures may enter puberty at different times.
Girls living in the same country may have different average ages of menarche depending on factors such as diet, weight, race, environment, and family history. During the reproductive years, cycles of hormone rhythms determine the timing of ovulation and menstruation. This cycle, the menstrual cycle, regulates our fertility, allowing for the possibility of pregnancy a number of days every month. Many women also experience more outward signs of this rhythm—changing emotions, changes in their breasts, variation in foods they enjoy eating at different times over a month. Menstruation and ovulation continue until age fifty (on average), but anytime between forty and fifty-five is normal. When periods stop, menopause has occurred.
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Does eating animal protein cause heart disease?
dotFIT answeredThe simple answer is no, eating animal protein does not cause heart disease. Can it contribute to it? Certainly. Animal protein tends to be higher in saturated fat and cholesterol. Saturated fat tends to be associated with higher total blood cholesterol/lipids, specifically LDL (the bad one). Higher total and LDL cholesterol levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Consuming less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat and replacing them with monounsaturated and/or polyunsaturated fats (like those found in non-hydrogenated vegetable oils and olives and nuts) is associated with low blood cholesterol levels, and therefore a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (Dietary Guidelines for American 2010 http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf) . However, animal proteins are rich in many nutrients, such as B vitamins, iron and zinc and play an important role in meeting the body’s nutrient needs.
The impact of animal protein is probably part of a larger-picture lifestyle. Keeping a balance of calories eaten and calories burned through activity is essential for maintaining a healthy weight. The evidence is much stronger that being overweight is harmful to your health and is linked to a variety of health issues, including heart disease.
Whether you do or do not eat animal protein is a personal choice. Eating lean meats in a diet composed of whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables and the right calorie intake coupled with regular physical activity is likely a small risk. However, most Americans do not get regular physical activity and consume a diet far from what would be considered healthy. In this scenario, then risk factors are allowed to exert their influence to a greater degree.
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