Proper prenatal care is the best way to prevent mental retardation in your child. Expecting mothers should abstain from alcohol and drug use during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the most common types of mental retardation and can be easily prevented. Folic acid vitamin supplements may help prevent mental retardation as well.
If you are at risk for any infectious diseases or have a family history of genetic disorders, you should receive testing before getting pregnant. Some tests can be done during pregnancy to identify factors that may cause mental retardation. However, few can be treated during pregnancy.