Richard E. Johnson, MD
Location and Office HoursDartmouth-Hitchcock Clinic Nashua
2300 Southwood Dr
Nashua, NH 03063
- BlueCross BlueShield
- First Health
- Great-West Healthcare Cigna
- Tufts Health Plan
- United Healthcare
- Cheshire Medical Center
What is a torn labrum?
Howard Luks, MD, Orthopedic Surgery, answeredThe shoulder is composed of two bones. The humeral head, or the ball of the shoulder. As well as the glenoid or the socket of the shoulder. Surprisingly, the socket or glenoid is flat. Imagine trying to balance a golf ball on a flat golf tee. Therein lies the importance of the glenoid labrum. The labrum is a circumfernetial cartilage disc which is triangular in cross-section. It sits along the edge of the glenoid and the humeral head sits upon the labrum and the glenoid simultaneously. The labrum deepens the socket based on its triangular cross-section. It also acts as a bumper to prevent the humeral head or ball from dislocating. The labrum serves another very important role in the shoulder. Ligaments within our body attach from one bone to another and help maintain stability of our joints. The glenoid labrum serves as the attachment of the ligaments to the socket portion of the shoulder. Therefore, if the labrum is intact then the ligaments themselves should also be intact. This is yet another way that the labrum serves to maintain stability of the shoulder joint. I hope this addresses your question.
Why are BMT and PBSCT used in cancer treatment?
Riverside Cancer Care Center answered
One reason bone marrow transplant (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are used in cancer treatment is to make it possible for patients to receive very high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. To understand more about why BMT and PBSCT are used, it is helpful to understand how chemotherapy and radiation therapy work.
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy generally affect cells that divide rapidly. They are used to treat cancer because cancer cells divide more often than most healthy cells. However, because bone marrow cells also divide frequently, high-dose treatments can severely damage or destroy the patient's bone marrow. Without healthy bone marrow, the patient is no longer able to make the blood cells needed to carry oxygen, fight infection, and prevent bleeding. BMT and PBSCT replace stem cells destroyed by treatment. The healthy, transplanted stem cells can restore the bone marrow's ability to produce the blood cells the patient needs.
In some types of leukemia, the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect that occurs after allogeneic BMT and PBSCT is crucial to the effectiveness of the treatment. GVT occurs when white blood cells from the donor (the graft) identify the cancer cells that remain in the patient's body after the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (the tumor) as foreign and attack them. (A potential complication of allogeneic transplants called graft-versus-host disease.)
This answer is based on source information from the National Cancer Institute.
What types of procedures can be done using minimally invasive surgery?
Examples of procedures that can be done using minimally invasive surgery include laparoscopies, gastric bypass surgery, colectomies, thoracic surgery and esophageal surgery.
In minimally invasive surgery doctors make several small incisions into the body rather than one large opening. A surgeon then inserts a long, thin tube with an attached light and tiny camera called an endoscope into one of the incisions.
The endoscope projects a magnified image of the body area onto a screen so the surgeon can get a close and clear view. The surgeon can then insert other instruments into the other small incisions to explore, remove, or repair the body part.
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