R Tyler Boone, MD
Specialty: Orthopedic Surgery
Location and Office HoursEastern Oklahoma Orthopedic Center
6475 S Yale
Tulsa, OK 74136
- Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Oklahoma
- BlueLincs (BC/BS)
- CIGNA HealthCare
- Saint Francis Hospital
- St John Medical Center
What is the most important muscle for improving my vertical jump height?
National Academy of Sports Medicine answeredThis common question is not easily answered. Many muscles contribute to a vertical leap, including your entire lower body, core, and some of your upper body musculature. For example, although the calves are commonly given credit for leaping ability, if you only had your calf muscles and not your thigh and hip muscles, you probably wouldn't be able to jump very high. Also, your upper body is important in helping to generate momentum for the vertical jump, making it vitally important as well. In summary, the most important muscle for for improving your vertical is all of them! However, when choosing only one muscle to focus on, a strong gluteus maximus is crucial to good vertical. This is due to its force production capabilities since it is the largest muscle in the body, and if this muscle is weak, it can disrupt lower-extremity mechanics which can lead to decreased overall force production and poor jumping performance.
What are proper sleeping positions to avoid neck pains?
Matthew F. McCarty, MD, Anesthesiology, answered
We spend about a third of our life sleeping. That’s a lot of time and certain positions can worsen neck pain. The most important thing to remember is to sleep with a pillow supporting the neck in an anatomically correct position. When sleeping on the back a cervical traction pillow can help people who have a neck and arm pain. This pillow provides support just above the shoulders and below the base of the skull giving a mild traction effect. The right size pillow can make a difference but too large a traction pillow can make sleep difficult.
For side sleepers it’s important to think about maintaining alignment of the neck with an imaginary line drawn right down the center of the face and shoulders. Some people have osteoarthritis or stenosis and don’t allow a lot of room for the nerves to exit the spine. When they lay on their sides with the head elevated above or below this imaginary line they can get symptoms. Usually a right size mildly firm pillow can fix this problem. Buy several and give them a try.
People with neck pain often cannot tolerate sleeping on their stomachs. This is because the neck is forced to be extended in a non-anatomically correct position throughout the sleep cycle. Certain cervical disease states become more symptomatic in these positions.
What are the types of bone tissue?
David Slovik, Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, answeredThe appearance of bone belies its structural complexity. It is neither as solid nor as static as it seems. It consists of two types of tissue -- compact bone and trabecular bone -- both of which are beehives of microscopic activity. The origins of these terms say a lot about the structure of bone.
Compact bone was originally known as lamellar or cortical bone. Lamellar derives from lamina, meaning "plate"; cortical, from cortex (or "shell"). The basic units of compact bone are tightly packed plates wound into tubular forms, called osteons, which look a little like rolled-up magazines. Each osteon has a tiny blood vessel called a capillary running through its central channel. The osteons are arranged in stacks to form a hard, shell-like membrane.
Although the second type of bone tissue is usually referred to as trabecular (meaning "like a little beam"), it is sometimes called cancellous ("lattice-like") bone. Indeed, this tissue comprises millions of tiny beams that form a lattice-like matrix.
Most bones contain both compact and trabecular tissue. Compact bone forms the dense outer casing, while trabecular bone spans the interior. However, the proportion of these two tissues varies from bone to bone. Long, regular bones, like those of the arms, legs, and ribs, consist primarily of compact bone. Irregularly shaped bones, such as the ends of the leg or arm bones, the pelvis, and the vertebrae, consist principally of trabecular bone.
Both compact and trabecular bone are made from the same fabric -- a meshwork of collagen fibers. This meshwork is inlaid with calcium and phosphate, which are mixed with water to form a hard, cement-like substance called hydroxyapatite. Sodium, magnesium, and potassium are also present in smaller amounts.
These materials are surprisingly strong. Ounce for ounce, bone bears as much weight as reinforced concrete. However, unlike concrete, it isn't inert. Bone is a living tissue. It serves as a repository of minerals for use by the body, and these elements are continuously lent out and replaced. Thus, like most other body tissues, bone is in a constant state of flux.
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