Some types of diuretics (water pill) cause the body to excrete too much potassium resulting in blood levels of potassium that are too low, a condition called hypokalemia. The doctor may change an individual's diuretic medication to another type that does not have this effect. Mild cases of this condition can be treated with potassium supplementation by mouth while more severe cases may require intravenous delivery of potassium to restore levels to a safe level.
Peter Cohen, MD
Location and Office HoursCleveland Clinic Main Campus Hematology Oncology
Cleveland, OH 44195
- Cleveland Clinic
How do medications treat hypokalemia?
Piedmont Heart Institute answered
What happens during focused radiation therapy for an AVM in the brain?
Doctors can use focused radiation therapy to treat arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain. This involves a robotic image-guided device that accurately beams the radiation therapy to the AVM. In contrast to the Lex-L original technique, they don’t have to use a spherical spot size, but the beam can be shaped for an irregular AVM or tumor in other cases. The robotic arm rotates around the head, and beams coming in from various different directions hit the AVM. So the amount of radiation on a small AVM is aggregated or focused on one particular area, largely to the exclusion of radiation exposure to the rest of the brain. The area that gets the most radiation exposure is the area where the vessel takes hold to AVM, then gradually the area degenerates and eventually closes.
Focused radiation therapy to treat arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain is an outpatient technique administered non-invasively. There are no pins in the head and no head frame. It’s done purely by positioning the head precisely and using image guidance, so it’s a painless outpatient procedure. In some cases, it can be done in a single treatment. The person goes home immediately after, and in some cases, it takes a series of treatments, especially if the AVM is a bit larger.
What are the risks of a hemoglobin electrophoresis test?
There is very little chance of a problem from having a blood sample taken from a vein.
- You may get a small bruise at the site. You can lower the chance of bruising by keeping pressure on the site for several minutes.
- In rare cases, the vein may become swollen after the blood sample is taken. This problem is called phlebitis. A warm compress can be used several times a day to treat this.
- Ongoing bleeding can be a problem for people with bleeding disorders. Aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin) and other blood-thinning medicines can make bleeding more likely. If you have bleeding or clotting problems, or if you take blood-thinning medicine, tell your doctor before your blood sample is taken.
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