The treatment of hematologic cancers depends on the type of cancer, its location, and its extent of spread.
Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for most of these cancers. Usually a combination of two or more chemotherapy drugs is used.
Radiotherapy (radiation therapy) is sometimes used, but usually in combination with chemotherapy. It is more likely to be used for cancer that is localized or interfering with the function of a vital structure. Radiotherapy may also be used prior to stem cell transplantation.
Stem cell transplantation is becoming increasingly used in recent years. Its purpose is to restore the bone marrow with normal cells after the bone marrow cells, healthy and cancerous, have been eradicated by chemo or radiation.
Newer therapies, such as immunotherapy, may also be beneficial for some types and stages of hematologic cancer.