Hypoparathyroidism, or under-activity of the parathyroid glands, is a primary risk factor for hypocalcemia. Premature birth is a risk factor for infants, as is having a diabetic mother, infection, stress, or periods of inadequate oxygen consumption in the womb. Some people do not respond normally to parathyroid hormones, a condition known as pseudohypoparathyroidism that often results in hypocalcemia. Kidney problems, dietary deficiencies, malabsorption disorders, and pancreatitis increase your risk of hypocalcemia. Using certain prescription drugs, such as rifampin or corticosteroids, increases your risk of hypocalcemia as well.