Dr. John R Ehteshami, MD
Specialty: Orthopedic SurgeryPhoenix Orthopaedic Consultants
5605 W Eugie
Glendale, AZ 85304
- BC/BS of Arizona-HMO Arizona
- CIGNA HealthCare
- United Healthcare
- Arrowhead Hospital
- Banner Thunderbird Medical Center
What are joints?
Michael Roizen, MD, Internal Medicine, answered
Joints - particularly hinge joints like the elbow and knee - are made up of bone, muscles, synovial fluid, cartilage, and ligaments. They're designed to bear weight and move the body. Here's how the different parts function:
Collagen: A type of tissue that serves as the scaffolding upon which everything else is built.
Tendons: They're collagen fibers that attach muscles to bones.
Ligaments: These soft tissues connect bone to bone. Joints with few or weak ligaments, like the shoulder, allow more motion (and more work for orthopedic surgeons), while joints with more supporting structures, like the elbow, are more stable, but have a smaller range of motion.
Cartilage: It gives us form before our bones are mineralized after birth - and continues to give structure to our ears and nose. In the rest of the body, it serves as the glistening plate of soft tissue at the end of bones that prevents bone-on-bone clanking. Articular cartilage (the cartilage between bones that acts as the body's shock absorber) does not have a blood supply of its own, so it needs to get nutrients from the surrounding synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid: In a normal, healthy joint, the articular cartilage is smooth, and bathed in spring water-pure synovial fluid - or joint oil. In essence, synovial fluid lubricates joints.
Can training for a marathon actually damage your bones and joints?
Michael Roizen, MD, Internal Medicine, answeredFinishing a marathon will earn you many things: a medal, increased cardiovascular stamina, and blisters the size of Australia. While I respect marathoners and admire their passion, dedication, and athleticism, I can't endorse the training it takes to complete one.
The constant pounding your joints take with every step increases the likelihood that you'll suffer from joint problems and osteoarthritis down the road. And once your run exceeds more than 18 to 20 miles, you are likely to be consuming your own muscle proteins to provide energy.
Sure, I'd love to see you cross the finish line, but I'd also like to see you finish the race of life in the best-and youngest-shape possible. To live long and young, you need to be physically active. But too much activity can actually put the accelerator on aging, instead of the brakes.
What are common muscles injured in ice hockey?
National Academy of Sports Medicine answeredMuscles that are commonly injured in hockey include: hip flexors, adductors (inner thigh), and lower back. To prevent injuries, it is important to have good flexibility and core strength. Use a foam roller on tight areas like the hip flexors and inner thigh. Foam rolling is a form of self-massage in which you apply pressure with a foam roller to tight areas for 30 seconds. This breaks up adhesions or "knots" in the muscle and relaxes the muscle to allow for a better static stretch. Once you have completed the foam rolling, perform static stretches for these same tight areas and hold the stretch position for 30 seconds. To perform the kneeling hip flexor stretch, place one knee on the ground and the other leg out front, similar to a lunge position with the back knee on the ground. Keep the back flat and chest up as you push your hips forward. You should feel a stretch in the hip flexor area of the leg on the same side as the knee that is on the ground. Move slowly into and out of the position and hold the stretch for 30 seconds. Make sure you activate your core by drawing-in the belly button to the spine. For the inner thigh, sit on a stability ball and extend one leg out to the side, keeping the other knee bent. Lean toward the knee that is bent, keeping the back flat until you feel the stretch in the inner thigh and hold this position for 30 seconds. Make sure you activate your core by drawing-in the belly button to the spine. To strengthen the lower back, perform the prone-iso abs and back extension exercises. To perform the prone-iso ab, lie on your stomach with the elbows under the shoulders and the forearms on the ground. Lift your body up slowly until you are in a flat back position, hold, and then return to the ground. Perform 1-2 sets of 15 slow repetitions holding at the top for 2 seconds. To perform back extensions, use a 45-degree back extension bench. Holding the hands across the chest and keeping the back flat, lower your body by bending at the hips. Maintain the flat back position until you are parallel to the ground. Hold for 2 seconds in this position and then return to the starting position over a period of 3 seconds using the glutes and hamstrings. Perform 1-2 sets of 15 slow repetitions holding at the top for 2 seconds.
See all Joint Health questions