Since mental retardation, or MR/ID, has a variety of causes, there is no standard cure for the condition. By identifying the cause for your child's condition, doctors can better develop treatment plans. Certain symptoms, such as late developing social or motor skills, may be "cured" by therapy, medication, or learning support systems. Children with mild mental retardation may become high functioning and self sufficient adults. Proper care throughout childhood increases one's ability to reach their highest possible level of function.
John A. Popp, MD
Location and Office HoursStanford Medical Center
Stanford, CA 94305
- HMO Blue (BC/BS of MA)
- Brigham & Women's Hospital
Is there a cure for mental retardation?
Honor Society of Nursing (STTI) answered
What factors affect the brain's response to dopamine?
Howard Shaffer, Addiction Medicine, answeredIn the brain, pleasure has a universal signature: release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in a part of the brain called the nucleus accumbens. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that seems to be especially important during the development and maintenance of addiction. A form of the dopamine D2 receptor gene called TaqI A1, which impairs the function of the receptor, has been linked with alcoholism. That same gene also appears to be more common among pathological gamblers and might be relevant to smoking and obesity.
Genes, of course, are not the only factors that influence how the brain responds to dopamine. An animal's social environment and stress level actually can change the number of D2 receptors in the brain and change the proportion of the nucleus accumbens that is dedicated to pleasure. Thus, the environment can alter how pleasurable a given reward can be. For example, foods considered delicacies in a certain culture are sometimes repugnant to those raised in a different culture. That might explain why some social and environmental conditions are more likely to be associated with addiction than others.
What is neuropathy caused by chemotherapy?
Neuropathy from damaged nerves is a side effect of some chemotherapy medicines. It also may be called peripheral neuropathy.
People who are having chemotherapy may notice pain and loss of feeling in their fingers and toes. As the neuropathy gets worse, it moves into their hands and feet and up into their arms and legs.
Neuropathy may cause tingling, burning, numbness, or weakness in the hands or feet. Or it may feel like a sharp stabbing pain. It can cause problems with balance and difficulty walking. It may make the person more or less sensitive to heat and cold.
While getting chemotherapy, a person who has symptoms of neuropathy should tell his or her doctor right away. Sometimes the dosage of medicines used in chemotherapy can be lowered, or different medicines can be used. This may avoid further nerve damage.
After chemotherapy, symptoms of neuropathy often go away with time. It may take as much as a year or more. But some of the nerve damage may be permanent.
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