Joel I. Sorosky, MD
Location and Office HoursHartford Hospital
Hartford, CT 06102
What drugs are used to treat advanced prostate cancer?
Marc Garnick, MD, Oncology, answeredThe Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) approved two drugs shown to help men with advanced prostate cancer live longer: the prostate cancer "vaccine" sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the chemotherapy drug cabazitaxel (Jevtana). An earlier medication that was approved was docetaxel. The FDA has also approved abiraterone (Zytiga) as a hormonal therapy. There is also a class of drugs called GnRH antagonists, which includes degarelix (Firmagon) or abarelix (Plenaxis), which are used in US and Europe.
What health professionals treat head and neck cancers?
Rob E. Ferguson, MD, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, answered on behalf of Intermountain HealthcareHead and neck cancers may require a multidisciplinary approach. Removal of the cancer may involve an otolaryngologist who focuses on cancer. Reconstruction would require a plastic surgeon (potentially one who is trained in microvascular reconstruction techniques). A radiation oncologist may also be necessary to administer adjuvant therapies. Where appropriate, a medical oncologist may also be involved. Where defects involving the voice box (larynx), tongue, esophagus, or mandible are involved, a speech pathologist and/or occupation therapist are necessary. A nutritionist can also be a vital member of the treatment team to assist with monitoring adequate feeding to avoid becoming dehydrated and malnourished.
How does radiofrequency ablation treat liver cancer?
Dmitri Alden, MD, Oncologic Surgery, answered
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is one of many methods to treat liver cancer. The technique consists of insertion of a special probe into a liver tumor using visual or ultrasound guidance. This is typically done during open or laparoscopic surgery. Occasionally, a transcutaneous approach could be used with a guidance of a CT scan. Once the position of the probe is confirmed, it is deployed and connected to a generator. The generator creates radiofrequency waves, heating the tumor up and destroying cancer cells. The probe could be deployed in various ways so different tumor sizes could be treated. Multiple studies have shown that small tumors under 3 cm are more successfully treated with RFA than larger ones. RFA is a great tool to use when a large liver resection is necessary but might be too dangerous to perform. The recurrence rate of tumors treated with RFA approaches 40% in some studies. Liver resection is still the main method to cure liver cancer. RFA is a great technology to use in properly selected cases, and in experienced hands it offers many benefits in treatment of primary or metastatic liver cancer.
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