: The only known treatment for Poland anomaly is reconstructive surgery. Due to varying symptoms, an individualized treatment plan is necessary to achieve complete rehabilitation. The patient's age and gender will determine the appropriate surgical approach. Poland anomaly patients often also develop leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment for this disease includes radiation therapy and bone marrow transplant.
Reconstructive surgery: Chest deformities, including a missing breast, are often treated with tissue expanders. Patients must be old enough to be able to tolerate tissue expanders before they are used. Abnormal breast development may influence psychological development in teenagers. Each chest wall reconstruction requires an individualized approach in terms of timing and type of repair. The repair should be done in two stages in children, because the child is growing, and in a single stage in adults. Overall, excellent results are usually obtained.
Females: Breast reconstructive surgery in females should not be performed in patients that are younger than 12 years old because asymmetry may result with continued growth of the breasts. Multiple surgeries may then be necessary. During adolescence, a tissue expander can be placed under the skin of the affected side. This expander can be inflated at intervals to match the development of the unaffected breast to prepare for silicon gel implants later. Following breast implantation, the latissimus dorsi muscle from the back may be grafted over the implant. Artificial cartilage may be implanted in the chest to help give it a more normal look. Long-term symmetry may be optimized by placing an implant in the unaffected breast as well. Some women may additionally require nipple reconstruction and reduction of the normally developed breast.
Males: In males, the chest deformity can be reconstructed when the patient is at least 13 years of age. When rib abnormalities are mild, the latissimus dorsi muscle from the back may be transplanted into the chest. Artificial cartilage may be implanted to help give the chest a more normal look. If present, rib abnormalities should be treated first, which may require bone grafting.
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