Edwin Yih-Jen. Kok, MD
- internal medicine
Location and Office HoursSouthern California Heart Center
506 W Valley
San Gabriel, CA 91776
- Anthem BlueCross BlueShield
- Blue Shield of California
- BlueCross BlueShield
- CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield
- Great-West Healthcare Cigna
- Health Net
- LA Care Health Plan
- Alhambra Hospital Medical Center
- Garfield Medical Center
- Greater El Monte Community Hospital
- Monterey Park Hospital
- Pacific Alliance Medical Center
- San Gabriel Valley Medical Center
What are the heart health benefits of being in a good marriage?
HealthyWomen answeredWomen who are in satisfying marriages have a health advantage over unmarried women or those in unsatisfying marriages, according to a 2003 study published in Health Psychology. The study, which followed 493 women age 42 to 50 over 13 years, found that women in good marriages were less likely to develop risk factors leading to cardiovascular disease compared to other middle-age women.
What are anomalous coronary arteries?
Anomalous coronary arteries are a rare occurrence in which the arteries that supply the heart with blood (the coronary arteries) do not come from the usual location on the large artery that arises from the heart (the aorta) or may have unusual branching patterns. They may occur with or without additional congenital heart disease.
Some types of congenital heart disease (CHD) such as d-transposition of the great arteries or Tetralogy of Fallot have a higher association with anomalous coronary arteries than other forms of CHD.
If the course of one of the major coronary arteries runs between the two major vessels leaving the heart (aorta and pulmonary artery), there is a possibility of pinching of the coronary artery and its flow back to the heart muscle. This may pose increased risk during exercise and strenuous activities. It is also possible for one of the coronary arteries (typically the left) to arise from the lung (pulmonary artery) rather than directly from the aorta. This is referred to as anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). ALCAPA usually presents in infancy, though may be undetected in some until later in life.
What are aortopulmonary collaterals?
In normal circulation, the aorta leaves the left side of the heart and brings red, oxygenated blood to the organs and tissues of the body. The pulmonary artery leaves the right side of the heart and brings blue, deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Occasionally, a child may be born with extra blood vessels that come off of the aorta and travel to the lungs. These are called aortopulmonary (AP) collaterals. They may be present in the setting of other congenital (existing at birth) heart disease. Sometimes the pulmonary artery fails to develop normally and may be too small to take the blue blood to the lungs. Aortopulmonary collaterals may form so that blood can get to the lungs. In this case these vessels are need so blood can pick up oxygen from the lungs.
Other times these vessels supply blood to a segment of lung that has blood flow from another source (the pulmonary artery). It may be beneficial to occlude (close off) these extra blood vessels if these vessels will not be used during a corrective surgery.
Similarly, small blood vessels may arise from normal arteries, which then allow extra blood to go to the lungs in the presence of long-standing cyanotic (causing bluish-skin) congenital heart disease. Some doctors believe the presence of these vessels may not be helpful because they may allow too much extra blood to enter the lung vessels. The presence of these vessels may prolong the hospital stay after heart operations. These vessels can be occluded using metal coils or small alcohol particles that are placed using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is inserted into the blood vessel being treated.
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