- Atrial septal defect, in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers of the heart (atria)
- Atrioventricular septal defect, (AVSD), in which there are holes between chambers of the heart, and the valves that control the flow of blood between these chambers may not be formed correctly
- Coarctation of the aorta, in which a part of the aorta is narrower than usual. If the narrowing is severe enough and if it is not diagnosed, the baby may have serious problems and may need surgery or other procedures soon after birth.
- Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA), in which the two main arteries carrying blood out of the heart -- the main pulmonary artery and the aorta -- are switched in position (transposed)
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) affects normal blood flow through the heart. As the fetus develops during pregnancy, the left side of the heart does not form correctly.
- Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) or connection (TAPVC), in which the veins bringing blood back from the lungs (pulmonary veins) don’t connect to the left atrium as they should. Instead, they go to the heart by way of an abnormal (anomalous) connection.
- Truncus arteriosus, also known as common truncus, is a rare defect of the heart in which a single common blood vessel comes out of the heart, instead of the usual two vessels (the main pulmonary artery and aorta).
- Ventricular septal defect (VSD), in which the wall (septum) that separates the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart has a hole.
David H. Sibley, MD
- internal medicine
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What are the types of congenital heart defects (CHD)?
Coleen Boyle, PhD, MS, Public Health, answered on behalf of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Congenital heart defects (CHD) can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly formed parts of the heart). Different types of CHD include:
What are the symptoms of heart birth defects?
Piedmont Heart Institute answered
The symptoms of spina bifida vary greatly with the severity of the disorder. If you have occulta, the least severe type of spina bifida, you will likely have no symptoms. The second most severe type of spina bifida encompasses closed neural tube defects, in which the disorder is marked by a tuft of hair, dimple, or other noticeable birthmark. In some cases, this type of spina bifida does not cause symptoms, but in other cases, sufferers might be partially paralyzed or have trouble regulating urinary and bowel functions.
Meningocele, the third most severe kind of spina bifida, involves protrusion of the membranes that cover the spine (meninges) and part of the spinal cord through a bone defect in the spine. In this case, affected individuals' symptoms may range from have few or no symptoms of spina bifida to incomplete paralysis with urinary and bowel dysfunction.
Finally, myelomeningocele, the most severe type of spina bifida, occurs when the open lesion or sac is present on the back containing abnormal spinal cord, nerves meninges, vertebral bodies, and skin. This type of defect can result in paralysis, problems with bowel and bladder control, leg and feet abnormalities, and brain formation abnormalities.
How common are heart palpitations?
People can have heart palpitations for a number of reasons. Palpitations are not always pathological, meaning they don't necessarily indicate a disease. Any time you are anxious or have a little extra caffeine, you can have extra heartbeats. Although extra heartbeats are common, not everyone feels them, but when you do, it can be disturbing. It feels like your heart skipped a beat, but in fact, it's an extra beat.
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