For the most part, kidney disease is the same for children as for adults, but there are some differences. The treatment options for kidney failure that results from kidney disease are the same for children as they are for adults: dialysis or transplant.
The leading causes are different, though. High blood pressure and diabetes are the leading causes of kidney disease in adults, but it is rare that a child develops kidney disease as a result of those conditions. Instead, structural problems of the kidney and urinary tract that are often present at birth are the leading cause of childhood kidney disease. Because children are still developing, kidney disease can stunt growth, which isn't a problem in adults who have already finished growing.